Discussion Papers

Main Phase (2008 - 2013)
"Emerging megacities"

The Sustainable Hyderabad Project is proud to announce the launch of a new publication series called emerging megacities. The first two volumes present background reports and stakeholder studies conducted within the project in 2009 and 2010. From 2011 onwards, papers published within the series will cover further research topics that are relevant for megacities in general. Contributions from megacity researchers and scholars from all over the world are welcome. Being a discussion paper series, submitted papers will be reviewed by an external committee, while at the same time they will also be eligible for submission to journals.

More information about the series can be found here.

Following titles are available:

Kimmich, C.; Janetschek, H.; Meyer-Ohlendorf, L.; Meyer-Ueding, J.; Sagebiel, J.; Reusswig, F.; Rommel, K.; Hanisch, M. Methods for Stakeholder Analysis - Exploring actor constellations in transition and change processes towards sustainable resource use and the case of Hyderabad, India. 1/2009.

Dienel, H.-L.; Walk, H.; Jain, A.; Schröder, S.; Poldas, B.; Alam, S.; Deekshith, S.; Rao, R. Constraints and Opportunities for the Development of Communication and Participation Strategies - Analysis for a political dialogue on climate friendly city development. 2/2009.

Deb, K.; Garg, A.; Rommel, K. Energy Management for the Emerging Megacity Hyderabad - Studying demand, supply and gaps and exploring technical, social and institutional factors. 3/2009.

Reusswig , F.; Meyer-Ohlendorf, L.; Anders, U. Partners for a Low-Carbon Hyderabad - A stakeholder analysis with respect to “Lifestyle Dynamics and Climate Change”. 4/2009.

Lüdecke, M.; Budde, M.; Kit, O.; Reckien, D. Evaluating Climate Change Scenarios - From AOGCMs to Hyderabad. 5/2009.

Lüdecke, M.; Budde, M.; Kit, O.; Reckien, D. Climate Change Scenarios for Hyderabad - Integrating uncertainties and consolidation. 1/2010.

Kimmich, C. Electricity Supply for Irrigation - Agricultural policies and farm level economics. 2/2010.

Osswald, N.; Dittrich, C. Sustainable Food Consumption and Urban Lifestyles - The case of Hyderabad/ India. 3/2010.

Reusswig, F.; Meyer-Ohlendorf, L. Social Representation of Climate Change - A case study from Hyderabad (India). 4/2010.

Hofmann, R.; Dittrich, C. The Social Construction of Food Risks of Lower Middle Class in the Emerging Mega City of Hyderabad/ India. 5/2010.

Bonaker, A. Between Village and City - Rural-urban linkages in the broader region of Hyderabad. 6/2010.

Jain, A.; Alam, S.; Dienel, H.-L.; Schröder, S.; Poldas, B.; Reimann, J. Participative Processes in the Field of Traffic and Transport. 7/2010.

Haberer, J. Sustainable Development Research - An analysis of determining factors for responsible environmental behaviour in regard to ‘Solar powered Schools for Hyderabad’. 8/2010.

Poldas, B.; Jain, A. Students’ Awareness of Climate Change and Awareness Raising Strategies for Junior Colleges in the Emerging Megacity of Hyderabad. 1/2011.

Preparatory Phase (2005-2008)
"Analysis and Action for Sustainable Development of Hyderabad"

These results concern the preparatory phase implemented since July 2005. This phase has been completed by the end of 2008. The main goals of this three year preparatory phase were to clarify objectives, and expected outcomes, to strengthen the commitment of participants, to collect information and expertise, to design the work packages of the Project, to define responsibilities of Partners and Actors, to explore methodologies and to build capacities, to set up the management structure and to write the final Project description.

The application of mutually co-ordinated methods like the "Institutions of Sustainability" Framework, the "Livelihood System Approach", the "Nutrition and Health Analysis" concept, approaches of "Knowledge Management Concepts", "Co-operative Science", "Gender Analysis" and "Urban Governance" is foreseen. The Project is expected to result in the implementation of an action plan for solving problems of nutrition and environment as well as leading to institutional innovations and governance reforms. Further expected outcomes are the integration of organisations of civil society in communication, participation, co-operation and network linking strategies throughout the research, the establishment of pilot projects which have the potential for continued implementation, once handed over to relevant actors. The outcomes are expected to be appropriate for enhancing development co-operation. Please find below the abstracts of the Research Reports (preparatory phase) – These activities will be intensified during the main phase of the project.

The Research Reports are outcomes of the Pilot Projects implemented jointly in Hyderabad by the Pilot Project Groups of the Megacity Project of Hyderabad. These reports for analysis and action focus on knowledge generation and application as well as on institutions and governance structures concerning the core issues of poverty, food, nutrition, health, transport, environment and resource degradation. This has been possible through joint research efforts, involving institutions of urban governance, integration of organisations of civil society in communication, participation, co-operation and network linking.

"Analysis and Action for Sustainable Development of Hyderabad"

Abstracts of all reports

  • Research Report 1
    “Food and Nutrition in Hyderabad - Current Knowledge and Priorities for Action in an Urban Setting”
  • Research Report 2
    Food and Nutritional Security in the Slums of Hyderabad
  • Research Report 3
    Changing food purchasing and consumption habits among urban middle-class in Hyderabad
  • Research Report 4
    Urban Street Food Vendors in the Food Provisioning System of Hyderabad
  • Research Report 5
    Achieving sustainable food security and poverty reduction through consumer cooperatives in Hyderabad
  • Research Report 6
    Health Services and Disease Profile of Hyderabad City
  • Research Report 7
    Web-based information tools and communication and participation strategies
  • Research Report 8
    Assessment of Urban Carrying Capacity. A Case Study of Environmental and Institutional Implications for Water Resource Management in Hyderabad
  • Research Report 9
    Natural Resource Management for a Sustainable Hyderabad: A Case Study of the Musi River
  • Research Report 10
    Pesticides, Residues and Regulation: A case study of vegetables in Hyderabad Market
  • Research Report 11
    The Integrated Lake Treatment and Management Component (ILTMC) of The Green Hyderabad Environment Programme (GHEP). The role of governance, institutions and the effects of the programme on local people - A case study of Mir Alam Lake
  • Research Report 12
    Rural - Urban Linkage: Emerging Conflicts and Livelihood Implications over Land Tenure and Water Sharing in Greater Hyderabad
  • Research Report 13
    Rural-Urban Migration. Impact of Watershed Programme
  • Research Report 14
    Rural Livelihoods and Urban Environment. An Assessment of Bio-fuel Programme for emerging Megacity of Hyderabad
  • Research Report 15
    CLEAN DEVELOPMENT MECHANISM (CDM) IN ACTION: prospects for urban and peri-urban forestry in Greater Hyderabad
  • Research Report 16
    Transport Model for a sustainable Hyderabad
  • Research Report 17
    Public private partnership (ppp) in Hyderabad. A Feasilibility Study on Proposed PPP on Renewable Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) Production from Sewerage Treatment

Research Report 1
Food and Nutrition in Hyderabad
Current Knowledge and Priorities for Action in an Urban Setting
Natalia Smith, James Garrett and Vishnu Vardhan

This report provides an overview of the food and nutrition security situation in the city of Hyderabad. The empirical evidence reviewed in this paper was collected primarily through: (i) electronic bibliographic searches, (ii) informational meetings with key actors in Hyderabad, (iii) data from the second National Family Health Survey (NFHS-2) completed in 1998/9, and (iv) qualitative and quantitative studies conducted in selected communities in Hyderabad. The review presents a conceptual model of food and nutrition security that it then uses to frame an exploration of the conditions and causes of food insecurity and malnutrition in Hyderabad. The report also describes food and nutrition programs operating in Hyderabad. It concludes by highlighting knowledge gaps that need to be filled in order to inform policies and programs to reduce food and nutrition insecurity in Hyderabad.

Key findings include:

  • Research on food and nutrition in Hyderabad is exceptionally limited. Studies carried out under this project were among the few in the past decade to measure levels of malnutrition. They also added substantially to the literature on marketing systems, food consumption patterns, and child feeding and care practices in Hyderabad.
  • Levels of malnutrition in urban slums rival that of rural areas. In the study areas, about 15 to 20 percent of children 6 to 36 months old suffered from acute malnutrition.
  • Chronic malnutrition was more varied: in one area, stunting was 13 percent, and in another it was 42 percent. The reasons for such variation are unclear, but most likely relate to social and geographical factors, such as ethnicity, caste, or length of residence.
  • Both under- and over- nutrition exist among the population. Under nutrition and micronutrient deficiencies are widespread among low-income groups. Overweight is not yet a widespread problem, but it is seen among high-income groups. This is expected to become more of a problem with significant economic growth, so Hyderabad cannot afford to ignore the problem. Ensuring diet quality for all income groups is a priority.
  • Child feeding and caring practices in Hyderabad are not optimal. Even though breastfeeding is the norm, problematic practices are widespread including discarding of colostrum, providing liquids to young infants, and starting solids before the child reaches 6 months of age.
  • Through its contribution to disease, lack of adequate water and sanitation appears to be a major contributor to malnutrition. Child diseases, such as diarrhoea and acute respiratory infections, are widespread in the urban slums with prevalence rates similar to rural areas of Andhra Pradesh.
  • Provision of infrastructure is not consistent across low-income areas. Newer communities suffer from bureaucratic rules making it difficult for them to demand adequate basic services. Most households in the study areas had a water supply system, but the water was not always available. Latrines or toilets were available for adults, but children defecated in the open. Sewage systems were available, but they often overflowed into houses during the rainy season.
  • Economic growth is changing food and production patterns. These changes and public regulations are affecting the livelihoods of street vendors and of those who run the small neighbourhood stores, where many poor people buy their food. How economic, or social and political, changes are affecting how and where the poor buy their food, and what they buy, is little studied, despite its implications for their food security and their nutritional status, as well as for the livelihoods of all those who participate in the food and agricultural system that feeds Hyderabad.
  • As the city expands, it also affects the surrounding environment and economy. The promotion of farmers’ markets, called Rythu bazaars, is one way that Hyderabad is actually bringing urban and rural, consumers and producers, closer together, to the benefit of both.
  • Political commitment, coordination and action across levels of government need to be strengthened. Currently, actions affecting the main determinants of nutrition—food, health, and care—are not coordinated across actors, with the result that the appropriate policies and programs are not effectively directed to the same place at the same time. It is imperative to understand the interplay of factors at the community, household and individual levels; to empower actors, especially the poor, to demand response but also assume responsibility; and to reflect on what needs to change at the governmental and institutional levels to effectively improve the food and nutrition security situation of Hyderabad, and on how to accomplish that.

Research Report 2
Food and Nutritional Security in the Slums of Hyderabad
The Community Studies team

The Community Studies Team
The Community Studies Team was comprised of staff members from Yugantar (a Hyderabad-based NGO), the Confederation of Voluntary Associations (COVA), the Satyam Foundation (community-based organizations in Hyderabad), and the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI). Individual members of the study team are listed below. Members of the team participated in the planning, coordination, fieldwork, and/ or writing of this report. The qualitative segments of the report were written by Padma Reddy and Vishnu Vardhan and translated and edited by Jaideep Unudurti. The quantitative segments were authored by Dr. Veena Shatrugna. Structural and editing support was provided by Natalia Smith and James Garrett.

The case-studies presented in this report are a preliminary survey of the food and nutrition security situation in low-income communities in the emerging Megacity of Hyderabad. Understanding current conditions of food and nutrition security and their determinants, and how these are changing in the face of evolving employment opportunities and population composition is essential for a sustainable and inclusive growth of the city. This research attempted to provide contextual information on some of these issues by conducting qualitative and quantitative research in three urban slums of Hyderabad—Rahmath Nagar, Papi Reddy, and Addagutta. The report explores the conditions and environment in each slum by providing information on livelihoods, infrastructure, services, food security, and nutrition. Constraints to reducing hunger and malnutrition were found across all three communities including seasonality of employment, limed availability of foods resulting in a limited dietary diversity, and child feeding and caring practices that are not optimal. In other cases, the challenges found were specific to the contextual circumstances of each community particularly dietary practices influenced by religion and culture, and social networks determined by permanence of community residents. The report concludes by calling for further in-depth research and action to better understand the challenges and opportunities to food security and nutrition present in the low-income communities of Hyderabad.

Research Report 3
Changing food purchasing and consumption habits among urban middle-class in Hyderabad
Kerstin Lohr and Christoph Dittrich

This preparatory case study provides an overview on the issue of changing food purchasing and food consumption habits among urban middle-classes in the South Indian emerging mega-city of Hyderabad. It analyses how food purchasing and dietary habits in this specific urban stratum are subject to profound changes due to increasing spending capacity and changing lifestyles in the context of economic liberalisation and globalisation processes. Another objective of the study examines health aspects of the changing food consumption habits. While nutrition research previously focused on the serious problem of undernutrition- related nutrient deficits, recent data shows that overweight and nutrition-related chronic diseases are more and more becoming serious problems particularly among India`s emerging urban middle-classes. Questionnaires and several interviews were carried out to collect empirical data on these issues. Embedded in a broad literature review, results, consequences, and challenges of changing food purchasing and consumption habits are discussed. The findings point to the necessity for further action-research.

Research Report 4
Urban Street Food Vendors in the Food Provisioning System of Hyderabad
Marlis Wipper and Christoph Dittrich

This preparatory case study provides an overview of the issue of the street food vending system in the South Indian emerging megacity of Hyderabad. It analyses the organisational structure and changing institutional arrangements of the urban roadside food vending system, looks at important livelihood aspects of the street vendors and examines the role street food plays in the urban food provisioning system. Primary research was carried out to collect empirical data on these issues. Embedded in a literature review, major problems and challenges of the street food vending system of Hyderabad are discussed. The findings point to the necessity for further action-research.

Research Report 5
Achieving sustainable food security and poverty reduction through consumer cooperatives in Hyderabad
Juliana Helmerich, Ma Moid, Markus Hanisch and Bern Wulf

The Old Town of Hyderabad is characterized by a great number of low-income households, poor infrastructure and limited access to basic amenities, subsequently resulting in high crime rates. In this very traditional and religious society, the majority of the women in the Bastis of the old town face restrictions, discrimination and inequality as well as the struggle for basic nutritional intake every day. To help them with their daily responsibilities and add value to their lives the Confederation of Voluntary Associations (COVA) has initiated self-organized self-help groups (SHG), which encourage these women to save money so that, further down the line, they can take a loan. This micro-credit approach has been successfully implemented in rural areas. In Hyderabad Roshan Vikas Thrift and Credit based SHGs have operated for the past 7 years.

The goal in founding the Women’s Consumer Cooperatives (WCC) in December 2005 was to organize a sustainable independent cooperative that ensures food security, with a subsequent empowerment of women and a linkage with rural producers in the future. Under these conditions, food security is the basis for being able to look for new sources of income. A survey to study the economic and social background, the functioning and future perspectives of over 200 members of different cooperative groups in rural and urban areas around the future megacity Hyderabad, begun in September 2006.

The following study reveals that members of the cooperative and SHG groups in rural and urban areas, despite their low earnings and educational levels, are interested in making an effort to better their lives, especially by enhancing their food security. On the other hand, managerial and organizational limits restrict certain approaches and methods. The women expressed their opinions about these concerns and problems. The study also reveals the nature of socio-economic impacts on the lives of the members.

It looked at present empirical realities in the framework of Security, Empowerment, Civil Society and Rural Development, with the assumption that the vulnerability of low income households regarding liquidity, health and nutrition in the context of rapidly expanding cities is a prime obstacle in the sustainable development of women. In the process, various issues were noticed which were found to be relevant for the performance and future direction of Women’s Consumer Cooperatives in Hyderabad.

Research Report 6
Health Services and Disease Profile of Hyderabad City
A Pilot Study
Sheela Prasad and C. Ramachandraiah

The objective of this study was to primarily get an overview of the availability health services and disease patterns in Hyderabad. Some broad picture has emerged as an outcome of this study but it needs to be again mentioned that this is only an incomplete picture as a lot of health data is not represented in this study due to non-availability. A major observation of this study is that data on health in Hyderabad is sketchy and no complete data bank on health is available.

Nonetheless, the major outcomes of the study indicate some important trends that need to be highlighted and considered for further research.
  1. Distribution of health services in the city is not uniform. Private health care is more used and spread over the city, outnumbering government health facilities. But in poorer areas, outskirts, and parts of the Old City, private health facilities are fewer. It is in these areas that government health care needs to address the health needs of the people with more facilities. This is not to say that government health facilities in other areas need to be ignored. Circles 1, 11, and 111 have fewer health facilities than other Circles.
  2. While the poor do see government health care as their first choice, they are forced to shift to the private health sector due to lack of doctors, proper treatment and proximity. There is therefore an urgent need for strengthening and improving services in government health sector.
  3. The disease profile shows a resurgence of infectious and communicable diseases in the city. TB, Diphtheria, Malaria are major causes of morbidity. The rise of Chikungunya in 2006 further emphasizes that most of these diseases are preventable. The very high numbers of diarrhea and enteric fever cases, specially among children clearly points to the poor public health facilities in slum colonies.
  4. Women in the slums are in poor health with high numbers reporting anemia linked problems, RTI and UTI. STD cases also appear quite high in Salivahana Nagar. As the treatment for these diseases is long drawn and involves the spouse/partner, the urban health post needs to include men also in treatment for it to be effective.
  5. Data from both the UHP shows that family planning by pushing contraception seems to be a major agenda, besides immunization.
In conclusion, this study argues that health care has to be a state concern with the state being the major provider. The private health sector can only be an option, not the main health care provider. In a situation, where economic inequality is sharp and wide with 30% of Hyderabad’s population in slums, State responsibility in public health and primary health care provision is absolutely critical. Moreover, the comeback of old and emergence of new diseases in the city in recent years, supports this demand for greater government role. New diseases like Chikungunya make no class, caste, area, gender distinction thereby suggesting that a collapse of public health and poor environment can lead to both old and new epidemics. This study claims to only unravel the tip of the iceberg and the signals it sends are disturbing and need urgent attention by health planners.

Research Report 7
Web-based information tools and communication and participation strategies
Hans-Liudger Dienel, Angela Jain, Nico de Abreu, Kristin Nicolaus, Chelikani Rao and Rajesh Kota

The report summarizes the activities and the action-oriented research work of Pilot Project 4 (PP4) “Web-based Information Tools and Communication and Participation Strategies“. Research objectives were divided in two areas: a) communication issues, namely the development of a Project-Homepage with interactive elements (www.sustainable-hyderabad.in ) and two documentary films and b) participation issues, namely citizens participation in India as a whole and in Hyderabad in particular. PP4 aims at exploring and evaluating the applicability and appropriateness of scientifically grounded communication and participation methods for use in a megacity like Hyderabad. In the course of the Pilot Project, different research methods were applied: literature studies (desk research), qualitative research methods (interviews, roundtable discussions, case studies) and the action-oriented and explorative performance of some first interventions.

India, and especially Hyderabad, shows remarkable affinity with and competences in the field of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), where a special focus within the Project lies. Furthermore as the Tarnaka Ward is an outstanding example for citizen’s engagement in regard to taking over social responsibility and in order to improve participative urban planning as well as governance structures, there has been close collaboration with the Tarnaka Residents Welfare Association. The Tarnaka resident’s communicative and participative activities have been observed, assessed and improved in a joint endeavor between the Megacities Project and the Standing Committee of the Tarnaka Residents Welfare Association (SCOTRWA); thus this outstanding Ward serves as a Case Study for PP4 to obtain a deeper insight about the complex issue of participation in India/ Hyderabad, a masters thesis was written within PP4’s research process, for instance describing the relevant actors for participative planning of water issues in Hyderabad and analysing road blocks on the way toward participation.

In the end, the results and findings of PP4 as well as the experimentally implemented Web Tools needed to be drawn together into an consistent Communication and Participation Strategy which can help the overall project activities and even thematically connected planning processes in Hyderabad to find broadly accepted solutions in consensus with all concerned actors and stakeholders.

Research Report 8
Assessment of Urban Carrying Capacity A Case Study of Environmental and Institutional Implications for Water Resource Management in Hyderabad
Ramesh Chennamaneni and Subba Rao

Urbanization to a large extent is the result of a host of changes in the socio-economic policies of the governments. With the national economy gradually shifting from predominantly agriculture based to industrial, the resultant socio-economic stresses and strains necessitated people to shift from rural areas to urban areas. Urban areas have a key role to play as facilitating centers for different economic functions, other than farming. They are understood as vital cogs in economic development and expected to offer quality of life. However, today the characteristics of a city are understood by the degree of pollution, health hazards, traffic congestion, number of street children and the stress & strain of living, flash floods & frequent inundations, law and order problems. Further, the cities suffer from shattered socio-cultural life, environmental and aesthetic deterioration and ever escalating cost of living.

The city of Hyderabad has come a long way from a historical city to the present day’s hub for IT industry and multinationals. The city also hosts a number of corporate hospitals, educational institutions and research organizations. With the booming economic and commercial activity, the city’s infrastructure has also been given importance to support the fast changing phase of the city.

On the other hand, issues such as traffic congestion, water shortage, inflation, increasing resident population, escalating land values and environmental concerns, are on the rise at an alarming rate. To accommodate the radial and multi-dimensional activities, the city has also grown in physicality. Today, the city has also come a long way from a 174 Sq. Kms radius to 2000 Sq. Kms and the projection suggests a rise to app 6000 Sq. Kms. Haphazard growth of Hyderabad has degraded natural resources like water, air, and soil.

It is observed and understood that problems are interrelated as if there is a network of prob­lems, balancing and perpetuating each other. Yet, the urban planning and management lacks comprehensive approach to address these issues. Most of the time, these issues are looked in isolation and their integration in the overall urban development process has not taken into shape yet. In fact, the urban development process in India has been reduced to mere physical development of the city.

Further, it is well understood that as the city grows in physical and social stature; we not only bring in more land and natural resources into the built-in areas, but also integrate the complexities of that respective area into the city. Moreover, the sustainability of the natural resources that the urban ecosystem can hold to meet the growing linear and horizontal dynamics is also a question to ponder over. On parallel lines, there are on-going efforts to make the city of Hyderabad a Mega City.

At this juncture, it is important to understand that unless the City is made self-reliant in managing its own resources and wastes, the idea of sustainable city will be limited to concept itself. This effort requires a careful understanding and analysis of urban planning and development process and its impact on the various natural, social and economic factors that determine the nature and status of the urban ecosystem. One needs to assess the carrying capacity of the natural system in context of urban development

Contemporary challenges that we face are:
  • Can we sustain the present rate of physical development?
  • To what extent urban development be limited?
  • Is there a better way to regulate urban development?

Research Report 9
Natural Resource Management for a Sustainable Hyderabad:
A Case Study of the Musi River

Lead by Forum for Better Hyderabad (FBH) and other NGO Networks such as CHATRI and GAMANA, a comprehensive Musi Study was conducted focussing on 5 key issues: a) Environment b) Livelihoods c) Institutional d) Legal and e) Implementation & Management. After a detailed study of the available literature and a stakeholder analysis, a set of workshops have been organised with all the involved focussing on Agriculture, Environment, Livelihoods and Urban Development issues to capture the ground reality and analyse the possible ways to restore Musi river. After the results have been analysed, a feed back workshop of the involved institutions and local public representatives was conducted to finalise the outcomes of the study. The results of the study were kept before the local and city authorities in a final workshop so that the outcomes may be critically discussed and evaluated for their operationalization. The present report documents all these efforts of this comprehensive action oriented research study. One of the striking profile of this study is the fact that never in earlier period the Musi river was studied in its physical totality involving all the relevant stakeholders and institutions. By doing so, for the first time, a comprehensive list of recommandations - which are vital for any attempt of sustainable planning of Musi river restoration - could be evolved and are compiled in the report. Some of the key recommandations for future attention by the urban governance, NGO’s and action researchers are summed up below:

  1. Livelihoods
    • a. Secure Livelihoods of people living in the slum areas of Musi by assured tenural rights and housing programs
    • b. Combine measures such as education, health, food and nutrition as well as employment oriented training to alleviate poverty
    • c. Make people partners of development so as to address the urgent issues of poverty, environment, housing, energy etc.
  2. Environment Conservation
    • Mitigation of degradation of natural resources through sustainable natural resource management involving all local stakeholders.
    • Conservation and proper use of land through land use planning, particularly the areas under bio-conservation zone
    • Conservation of water resources/catchments/lakes in a phased manner
    • Conservation of open spaces and local areas for recreation
    • Quality of Air, Water and Land in terms of pollution control
  3. Transportation and Traffic management
    • Efficiency of transportation systems to save time and energy resources
    • Public Transport System for social mobility and protection of environment
  4. Overall Energy Conservation
    • Secure local energy needs of the people through providing alternative energy sources such as LPG Gas for the poor households for cooking having white ration cards
    • Provide improved cooking herds (Chulhas) as traditional herds are energy inefficient, pollute the environment (C02) and cause severe health hazards to women and children
    • Create comprehensive urban forestry development plan combined with bio-fuel plantations to be implemented in the bio-conservation zone/waste land marked in the up-stream areas with local peoples participation as a major source to secure local energy needs and for carbon sequestration

Research Report 10
Pesticides, Residues and Regulation:
A case study of vegetables in Hyderabad Market
Ramanjaneeyulu, D. and Ramesh Chennamaneni

Our research shows several objectionable gaps and lapses in institutions (regulatory systems), several contradictions even at the conceptual level, and gross negligence with regard to assessing and promoting safer and better alternatives. There are serious unanswered questions related to pesticide registration processes and procedures in the country. To begin with, risk assessment of pesticides is taken up as a routine risk assessment of hazardous chemicals rather than as impact assessment vis-à-vis ecological practices in agriculture for pest management during the registration process.

Further, the food safety assessment of pesticides is de-linked from its registration process – registration happens without ADIs or MRLs being first fixed and without MRL-fixation flowing out of chronic toxicity data. Even in cases where MRLs are fixed, they may not be fixed for all the commodities for which registration has been allowed.

The safety assessment from a long term perspective is related to health impacts – whether it is related to potential endocrine disruption or teratogenecity or immune system disruption or reproductive health damage and so on.

Registration happens based on developers’ data and not independently generated data. At another level, there is an institutional conflict of interest with the Ministry of Agriculture, with a mandate of increasing agricultural production through the use of any technology, being expected to regulate pesticides from an environmental and health point of view.

The ones who register pesticides have hardly monitored pesticide residues, nor is there a system of periodic, automatic review of registered pesticides. It is not clear whether the AICRP on pesticide residues feeds into decision-making related to registration and licensing of pesticides. Further, the system of registering pesticides without MRLs being fixed continues.

The current research effort discovered that pesticide residue data is not pro-actively shared with the public nor does it inform regulation related to registration and use.

Most surveillance related to pesticide contamination is not shared with the public. In fact, data is presented mostly in forms that make pesticide residues look safe.

Official pesticide residue surveillance systems’ findings do not match with independent studies in the country. There seems to be under-reporting of the level of contamination of Indian products and this is reflected by frequent reports of Indian agricultural export consignments being rejected in other countries due to high levels of residues detected in them.

The greater question remains of whether the fixed MRLs are safe or not, in terms of chronic toxicity. As CSE’s work on MRLs, TMDIs and ADIs has shown, the MRL-fixation itself is questionable in the country in addition to the fact that MRLs are yet to be fixed for many pesticides! Even if MRLs are fixed for all crops for all commodities they are used on, and even if such MRLs are followed, there is no guarantee that the cumulative intake of such pesticide residues will be within the Acceptable Daily Intake levels!

Further, there is an additional complication allowed through law, in the form of Provisional Registration. Section 9 (3) (b) of the Insecticides Act allows provisional registration of some pesticides without sufficient data generated for assessing safety or efficacy. Very frequently, there are many violations witnessed in the use of such provisional registration. A popular pesticide like Avaunt (brand name of Indoxacarb) was introduced through such a provisional registration and was aggressively marketed even during that stage.

Research Report 11
The Integrated Lake Treatment and Management Component (ILTMC) of THE Green Hyderabad Environment Programme (GHEP)
The role of governance, institutions and the effects of the programme on local people -
A case study of Mir Alam Lake
Annette Kunz

For hundreds of years, Hyderabad’s lakes were important for the city’s water supply, therefore, in a situation of increasing demographical pressure and rapid urbanisation processes the maintenance of these lakes become an important strategic issue for achieving the sustainable management of Hyderabad’s water household. The ongoing degradation and disappearance of the Hyderabad’s natural and man-mad water bodies within the last decades finally resulted in a decision of its judiciary to protect Hyderabad’s urban water bodies. From 2002-2006, the Hyderabad Urban Development Authority (HUDA) launched the ‘Green Hyderabad Environment Programme’ (GHEP) of which the ‘Integrated Lake Treatment and Management Component’ (ILTMC) includes the intensive treatment, conservation and management of 87 lakes. The purpose of the study is on the one hand an impact assessment of this ILTMC on the environmental situation of the urban water bodies as well as on the residents and users of the lakes and on the other hand an actor analysis. Following the international debate on water issues of which one important issue is the search for new institutional arrangements within the water sector, the study investigates institutions in place and their alteration as well as prevalent and changing governance structures of Hyderabad’s water sector. As the guiding concept for the research phase, the Institutional Analysis and Development Approach (IAD) of E. Ostrom was used along with other institutional literature on resource regimes. Using the method of triangulation, expert interviews and a survey of residents and users were conducted. The research is conceived as a case study of Mir Alam Lake and must be seen as one first explorative step into the subject of the ILTMC and lakes. The ILTMC is part of an integrated approach which combines greening components with the treatment of lakes. Along with international trends the programme adopts a basin management concept. Though the ILTMC shows in many respects a very technical approach by demarcating the Full Tank Level (FTL), fencing the lakes, creating parks and building Sewage Treatment Plants (STPs), it also has social components. For instance, Neighbourhood Committees (Sarassu Samrakshana Samithis) were created, which should help with managing and mobilizing public opinion, but which proved to be nearly unknown to the local residents in the case of Mir Alam Lake. The Women Groups of the Greening Programme are locally much more known, which might make them a better mediator for the programme. Concerning the multitude of actors which were typical for the management of lakes just a couple of years ago, now, more and more administrative power is concentrated within the hands of HUDA what eases many administrative procedures; for instance, the handling of encroachments. Property rights have been clarified, so that the lakes snatched from their open access situation. Though the programme is well approved by local people, it does not assign any decision-making power to locals and users. At large, the ILTMC is able to tackle major environmental problems, but its performance is slow and the circumstances for the lakes in Hyderabad are still worsening. Furthermore, the success of the programme depends on the performance of other local bodies, for instance, in the field of waste management. Major critical issues are still the problem of encroachment due to Private Interest Litigations and the high O & M costs caused by the operation of the STPs. Few market-based approaches are adopted which could help to recover the costs, but some scientists develop alternative ways of lake treatment. The programme is clearly part of an ongoing learning process to save Hyderabad’s lakes.

Research Report 12
Rural – Urban Linkage:
Emerging Conflicts and Livelihood Implications over Land Tenure and Water Sharing in Greater Hyderabad
V. Ratna Reddy and B. Suresh Reddy

While disparities persist, rural and urban areas and their economies are increasingly interconnected. There is a growing movement of people, goods, capital, ideas and information between urban and rural areas. Some of these movements benefit both rural and urban areas; other movements benefit only one side usually the urban areas. Part of the problem is that policy makers often do not take these rural urban linkages into account and divide their policies along spatial and sectoral lines(Taccolli,2002). Urban planners concentrate on the development of the urban areas without due attention to rural areas and divide their policies along spatial and sectoral lines. Urban planners concentrate on the development, while rural development planners tend to ignore the urban areas, as if rural areas exist in isolation. Moreover, the administrative division in urban and rural areas results in a lack of coordination and inwork at cross-purposes. It is important that national government and the local government of large cities,small and medium-sized towns and rural areas, recognize the ruralurban linkages,the impact of their actions on urban and rural areas, and the positive(and negative) role they can play in the development of both these areas. Urban areas are linked with rural areas in many increasingly important ways, which often pose challenges to development planners and policy makers. They include flows of agricultural and other commodities from rural based producers to urban markets, both for local consumers and for forwarding to regional, national and international markets; and ,in opposite direction, flows of manufactured and imported goods from urban centres to rural settlements. They also include flows of people moving between rural and urban settlements, either commuting on a regular basis, for occasional visits to urban-based services and administrative centres, or migrating temporarily or permanently. Flows of information between rural and urban areas include information on market mechanisms- from price fluctuations to consumer preferences-and information on employment opportunities for potential migrants. Financial flows include, primarily, remittances from migrants to relatives and communities in sending areas, and transfers such as pensions to migrants returning to their rural homes, and also investments and credit from urban-based institutions.

Research Report 13
Rural-Urban Migration
Impact of Watershed Programme
G Muralidhar and Ramesh Chennamaneni

The development policy has always wanted to mitigate the distress migration from rural to urban migration. Implementing watershed programmes to improve the natural resource base of the rural areas on a sustainable basis was one of the methods chosen to reduce this distress migration. In India, the Government of Andhra Pradesh was one of the first to adopt watersheds. The Indo-German Watershed Development Programme (IGWDP) was one such watershed project in AP, implemented with the support of BMZ and KfW. Under the overall coordination of NABARD, this programme started in 2003 and was implemented in six watersheds (pilot projects). By the end of 2006, four of these pilot watersheds completed capacity building phase and entered full implementation phase.

As sufficient time has elapsed since the beginning of the pilot watersheds, a study was conducted to assess the impact of these watersheds on the rural – urban migration. The study explored the aspects of availability of the opportunities for wage employment and migration patterns with reference to the implementation of the watershed programme, with particular emphasis on the migration to Hyderabad.

The issues for study were identified after a literature survey, quick field visits to all the pilot projects and internal brainstorming. Two watersheds and one control village were studied to understand the net attributable results from watershed projects. Apart from the study of the village level issues, fifteen households in each village were studied using analytical narrative technique. Purposive sampling method was used to select the households to ensure representation of different communities, categories of wage labour, marginal farmers and watershed beneficiaries. Further, key persons concerned with the subject were interviewed to get their insights on migration at the policy and implementation levels. Preliminary results of the study were presented at a stakeholders workshop.

The direct employment generated during watershed works reduced the migration during the period of works. Further, watershed activities led to a rise of water level in open wells, recharge of bore wells, retention of soil moisture, an increase in cropping intensity and the availability of water and fodder for livestock.

However, there is no evidence of indirect employment generation beyond the watershed works and 100-day national employment guarantee works. This question may have to be explored on conclusion of watershed works in the villages. However, the impact of watershed programme on pull migration is negligible. The existing employment market cannot absorb the growing number of high school educated youth. Therefore, non-farm sector, services, rural industries, etc., need to be focussed on in addition to NRM based livelihoods. Further, provision of urban facilities in rural areas has a positive effect in reducing the pull migration.

Thus, watershed development is a necessary, but not sufficient, condition for poverty reduction. A comprehensive livelihoods enhancement intervention based on systematic planning and assessment of existing livelihoods is needed. There is a need to address both short term and long term needs, act on both the individual and collective fronts, intervene at all stages of value chain, support both the backward and forward linkages, bring in new technology and skills, and provide urban facilities in rural areas. Further appropriate institutional base to improve their access to services should complement watershed projects.

Research Report 14
Rural Livelihoods and Urban Environment
An Assessment of Bio-fuel Programme for emerging Megacity of Hyderabad
Suhas P. Wani and Raghu Chaliganti

This Pilot Study - in cooperation with ICRISAT - is part of the Megacity Project Hyderabad and has the following objectives: a) to study the policy environment and promotion efforts towards bio-fuel in Andhra Pradesh, b) map the involved institutions and analyse their role in the implementation of the Programme and c) conduct an Impact Assessment of the Programme on securing Rural Livelihoods and improving Urban Environment and Energy Security.

Integrated development of bio-fuel promotion in Andhra Pradesh was initiated in July 2005 by the Consortium led by ICRISA, with the Government of Andhra Pradesh, NOVOD and GTZ as partners. The objective of this programme is to achieve the twin goals of a) rehabilitation of degraded waste lands and to enhance employment generation and improve livelihoods of rural poor and b) at the same time contribute towards self sufficiency in energy resources and towards the protection of the environment.

Institutional Analysis and Development (IAD) framework of Ostrom, et al., has been used in the study to make an explorative analysis of the complex linkages between institutional arrangements and sustainable livelihood strategise within the frame of bio-fuel promotion activities. For the empirical evidence, the model plantation on 300 ha common property resources (revenue land) comprising Velchal and Kothlapur villages were selected. Both primary and secondary data for the quantitative and qualitative analysis was collected.

The bio-fuel programme could indeed contribute towards increase in employment and income and also contributed towards food security of the poor as dry crops were grown along with bio-fuel plants. However, though at least 100 – 130 days of guaranteed employment could be provided, the involved poor households could not cross the poverty line. For example, their microfinance schemes were confined at subsistence levels to plantation and seed activities resulting in low incomes. High income economic activities need promotion of technology, skills, as well as improvement in infrastructure and marketing facilities. Concerning property rights and ownership of assets by the poor, it is highly necessary that the usufrucht rights provided are bundled with other promotion activities such as free from tax payment, long term use guarantee, compensation rights as high pressure for land from growing Megacity of Hyderabad exists. As active participation of the poor in the programmes has been found very weak as well as sectoral approach exists, it is highly necessary that village level institutions (Panchayats), NGO’s, Government agencies, Technical and academic institutions as well as Banks and micro-finance institutions are made partners of the overall Programme. Private-Public Partnership can play an important role in bridging this gap and provide win-win solutions.

Most importantly, this programme has high potentialities to positively influence the urban environment of Hyderabad city. About 3000 buses operate in the city as a major public transport system consuming only fossil fuel and thus being one of the major pollution sources. Close studies of the trials run by the Road Transport Corporation of Hyderabad for six months with 20% bio-fuel mix have shown very positive results. Even in a conventional diesel engine, the use of bio-diesel of 20% has resulted in reduction of Carbon-dioxide (CO2) from 0.563 to 0.211 %, where as that of Nitrogen-oxide (NO2) and particulate matter from 0.56 to 0.42% and the aggregate smoke emission could be reduced by 30%. The perspective shows, that 1 ton of bio-diesel produced or consumed avoids emission of green house gases, equivalent to 3 tonnes of CO2. There is also a high scope to integrate carbon credit programme of international agencies as there is no net addition of CO2 to atmosphere due to bio-diesel use.

Further, the study could establish that energy security can be achieved at the village level through electricity production, water pumping and motive power for agricultural operations and micro-enterprises. This underlines once again the potentialities of the link between rural livelihoods, energy security and urban environment and calls for concrete long term comprehensive policies, activities and action plans focussing on institutional innovation and improved governance structures.

Research Report 15
prospects for urban and peri-urban forestry in Greater Hyderabad
Tk. Sreedevi, Suhas P. Wani , Ramesh Chenamaneni and Raghu Chaliganti

The Kyoto Protocol’s mandate for the European Union (EU) is to cut its overall emissions by 7% below 1990 levels by 2012. Given that this may be achieved through both national actions and through carrying out Green House Gas (GHG) abatement projects in developing countries, and given the region’s impressive track record in Renewable Energy Technology (RET) development, there is potential for mutual gain through RET project implementation in India by the EU through Clean Development Mechanism (CDM).

CDM is a unique mechanism because of its dual purpose of achieving GHG abatement and sustainable development. To this end, for example, Indo-German Energy Programme lead by GTZ of Germany has been established at Bureau of Energy Efficiency, New Delhi. Already pilot projects have been identified, efforts are in to build capacities of all the involved stakeholders. CDM market size is estimated to be in the range of USD 5 to 10 billion/annum investment potential. However, to capture this opportunity, various capacity building measures inter alia, technical assistance, training, awareness building programmes for industry, support in technology transfer, innovative financing schemes, and sound regulatory programmes are highly necessary. The case study of Powerguda village shows that collective action through community forest management enabled the women self help groups to share knowledge and enhance their capacities to sell carbon credits. There is, therefore, ample scope to replicate this example of carbon sequestration in the urban and peri-urban forest development activities of Hyderabad Urban Development Authority (HUDA) in Greater Hyderabad with the help of international cooperation through promoting Clean Development Mechanism (CDM).

Research Report 16
Transport Model for a sustainable Hyderabad
Christoph Walter and Tanja Schäfer

This Pilot Project was carried out as a part of preparatory phase for the development of work packages in the Traffic and Transport sector in overall project of planning for sustainable Hyderabad as a Megacity. The work was accomplished under the scope of a Memorandum of Understanding between the Engineering Staff College of India (ESCI), Hyderabad and PTV Germany, 21st July, 2006. The team that has carried out the study comprises partners from India and Germany.

Sustainable transportation planning aims at providing a safe, environmentally friendly, cost-effective and equitable transportation system. Hyderabad is fast emerging as a Megacity with already more than 5 million inhabitants; many complex traffic and transportation problems exist in the metropolitan area. Sustainable planning requires a comprehensive approach towards understanding the transportation system’s characteristics and capabilities, needs of the people and their travel patterns and the deficiencies in the system that need to be addressed over short-term, mid-term and long-term time frames.

The study opens with a review of the existing data connected with traffic and transportation planning for the city of Hyderabad. The results of studies conducted earlier, like HATS, DBHATS II and others from the Municipal Corporation of Hyderabad (MCH), Hyderabad Urban Development Authority (HUDA) etc., are reviewed. The stakeholders in the system who are responsible and accountable for providing transportation services were identified and their capabilities and limitations analysed as part of the pilot project.

In order to appreciate and to understand the recent changes in the travel behaviour of people, a field study of traffic volume counts was carried out at 15 selected locations spread all over the urban area. The collected data were validated against the historic data available. Based on this, the analysis has clearly indicated the following:

  • The travel demand in the peripheral areas of Hyderabad has increased greatly.
  • The mode choice behaviour of the people has changed much, indicated by a significant increase in four-wheeler and two-wheeler composition and a decline in the human-powered bicycle component.
  • The interaction between the newly developed fringe areas with the core area is increasing, as indicated by large peak-hour volumes in the links to the outer areas.
  • The public transportation system is not able to meet the travel needs of the people, as indicated by the growth of personal modes of transportation.
The field study carried out and the analysis of the data clearly indicates a need for an exhaustive and comprehensive transportation study and creation of a comprehensive computer-based transport model for the entire Hyderabad Metropolitan region, which can help in better network-building, improved public transportation facilities and evolution of strategies for a sustainable growth of the city that can improve the quality of life of the urban community, as far as transport needs are concerned.

Research Report 17
Public private partnership (ppp) in Hyderabad.
A Feasilibility Study on Proposed PPP on Renewable Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) Production from Sewerage Treatment
The PPP Study Team

In an increasingly competitive global environment, with ever-increasing responsibilities, Governments around the world are now focusing on new ways to finance the various projects, especially in the infrastructure (including energy) and service delivery sectors. The importance of a greater interface between the public sector and private agencies has been felt, and this realisation has led to the forging of an alliance between the public and private sectors and Public-private partnerships (PPP's or P3's) are becoming a common tool to bring together the strengths of both these sectors. In addition to maximizing efficiencies and innovations of private enterprise, PPP's can also provide the much-needed capital to finance government programs and projects, thereby freeing public funds for core economic and social programs.

The Government of India's liberalisation and economic reform programmes, aimed at rapid and substantial economic growth, and integration with the global economy, set into motion the need for a change in the policy, vis-à-vis the role of government as the sole 'provider', with the private sector kept out of the developmental process. In this framework, Government of Andhra Pradesh became one of the first state government to enact legislations to this effect - involving the private sector in development. With its 'Infrastructure Development Enabling Act' - (IDEA), Andhra Pradesh, the fifth largest economy in the country, changed the face of the Social, Access, Industrial and IT infrastructure, along with Power and Special Economic Zones (SEZs).

Working Papers

Walk, H.; Schröder, S. (2009): Low Emission Lifestyles in Megacities. Communication and Participation Strategies in Hyderabad, Working Paper, July 2009, Institute of European Studies, UC Berkeley.

Di Gregorio, M.; Hagedorn, K.; Kirk, M.; Korf, B.; McCarthy, N.; Mein